(Credit: Getty Images)
Marine debris, or flotsam, clumps together as it moves on the surface of the ocean, new research featuring the largest flotilla of sensors ever deployed in a single area suggests.
Researchers placed hundreds of drifting sensors in the Gulf of Mexico near the site of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to observe how material moves on the ocean’s surface. Rather than spread out, as current calculations would predict, many of them clumped together in a tight cluster.
The findings, which appear in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, hold promise for the cleanup of marine pollution and have wider implications for ocean science.
Researchers dropped a group of 326 drifters in February 2016 in a grid pattern in the Gulf of Mexico. The white dots in the video disperse, but the red dots clump together in an area about the size of a football field. (Credit: Andrey Shcherbina/U. Washington)
“To observe floating objects spread out over a region the size of a city concentrate into a region smaller than a football stadium was just amazing,” says first author Eric D’Asaro, professor of oceanography at the University of Washington. “We knew there would be some concentration, but the magnitude seen was quite stunning.”
Textbook science would predict that material in the ocean would simply diffuse—that is, move apart or flow with the currents. But recent research has begun to explore the role of oceanic fronts and vortexes, and a 2015 study showed that small-scale eddies push phytoplankton down to hundreds of feet below the water’s surface.
The new study shows that these eddies can draw in flotsam from a wide area. If scientists could somehow observe or predict this funneling behavior, it might help to clean up oil spills or recover marine plastics and other floating debris.
“The hope is to apply this in ocean cleanup projects, but first we have to figure out how to observe or predict where these concentrations will occur,” D’Asaro says.
For the 2016 field campaign, coauthor Tamay Özgökmen and colleagues at the University of Miami designed inexpensive drifting sensors that are built from biodegradable plastic so that hundreds can be deployed at a time.
The project used hundreds of biodegradable white plastic drifters in several experiments to mimic how flotsam, or floating debris, travels in the ocean.(Credit: CARTHE/Guillaume Novelli)
During a winter cruise, the team placed the instruments about 75 kilometers from the mouth of the Mississippi River, in an area where fresh, cold river water meets saltier, warmer, and denser water from the Gulf of Mexico. The cruise deployed more than 1,000 drifters, making it the largest-ever deployment of individually-trackable ocean drifters in a single location to see how they behave as a group.